Reverse osmosis (RO) is a water purification technology that uses a semipermeable membrane to remove ions, molecules, and larger particles from drinking water.
In reverse osmosis, an applied pressure is used to overcome osmotic pressure, a colligative property, that is driven by chemical potential differences of the solvent, a thermodynamic parameter.
RO can remove many types of dissolved and suspended species from water, including bacteria, and is used in both industrial processes and the production of potable water. The result is that the solute is retained on the pressurized side of the membrane and the pure solvent is allowed to pass to the other side. To be "selective", this membrane should not allow large molecules or ions through the pores (holes) but should allow smaller components of the solution (such as solvent molecules) to pass freely.
Advantages of reverse osmosis
1. Removes nonionic impurities and dissoved solids (i.e.organics,silica,bacteria)
2. Reduction of hazardous chemical storage and handling associated with ion exchange
3. Reductes loading on ion exchange systems:
Extends run lengths
Extends resin life
Reductes operating costs
Application range of reverse osmosis